HIV & AIDS 101

All you need to know about HIV and AIDS.
HIV origin - Chimpanzee

History of HIV 
Sejarah HIV

HIV originated from a form of Simian Immunodeficiency Virus found in chimpanzees (SIVcpz) in the early 1900s. The first known case of HIV was later discovered from a preserved blood sample of a man who passed away in the Congo in 1959. First warning was issued by The United States Centre for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) about a relatively rare form of pneumonia among a small group of young homosexual men in Los Angeles, which was later confirmed to be related to AIDS.

Penyakit HIV berasal dari Simian Immunodeficiency Virus yang dijumpai dalam cimpanzi pada awal 1900. HIV telah ditemui dalam sampel darah seorang penyakit yang telah meninggal dunia pada tahun 1959. Maka, amaran pertama terhadap sejenis pneumonia dalam kalangan sekumpulan lelaki homoseksual telah dikeluarkan oleh CDC, di mana penyakit tersebut telah dibuktikan berkaitan dengan AIDS.

HIV virus

What Is HIV? 
Apa Itu HIV?

Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is a virus that weakens the immune system, making the human body susceptible to infections.

Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) merupakan suatu virus yang melemahkan sistem imun, menyebabkan pesakit mudah mendapat jangkitan kuman.

Key Population At Risk / Populasi utama yang berisiko tinggi

  • People who inject drugs (PWID)
    Individu yang menyuntik dadah
  • Female sex workers (FSW)
    Pekerja seks wanita
  • Men who have sex with men (MSM)
    Lelaki yang berhubungan seks dengan lelaki
  • Transgender women (TG)
    Wanita transgender
People With Aids Signboard

HIV infection can progress to AIDS (late stage) if left untreated.

Jangkitan HIV boleh menjadi AIDS (tahap akhir) sekiranya tidak dirawati.

AIDS is defined as a number of life-threatening infections and illnesses
that occur when your immune system has been severely damaged by HIV.
AIDS didefinisikan sebagai beberapa jangkitan dan penyakit yang berlaku apabila
sistem imun pesakit telah dirosakkan oleh HIV.

Mode of Transmission 
Cara Penyebaran Jangkitan

HIV virus transmission
HIV Is Transmitted Through
HIV Merebak Melalui
  1. Unprotected vaginal or anal sex with an infected person
    Seks melalui dubur atau faraj tanpa perlindungan dengan pesakit HIV
  2. Sharing needles contaminated with HIV for drug injections
    Perkongsian jarum suntikan dadah yang dicemari oleh HIV
  3. From HIV positive mother to child during pregnancy, birth or breastfeeding
    Penyebaran dari ibu yang dijangkiti HIV kepada bayi semasa mengandung, melahirkan anak atau penyusuan
  4. Transfusion of blood contaminated with HIV
    Transfusi darah yang mengandungi HIV
No HIV virus transmission
HIV Is Not Transmitted Through
HIV Tidak Merebak Melalui
  1. Closed-mouth kissing with HIV positive person
    Ciuman
  2. External physical contact such as shaking hand and hugging
    Sentuhan fizikal seperti berjabat tangan dan memeluk
  3. Sharing food and utensils
    Perkongsian makanan dan perkakas dapur
  4. Sneeze, coughs, sweat, tears or urine
    Bersin, batuk, peluh, air mata atau kencing
  5. Mosquitoes, ticks or other insects bites
    Gigitan nyamuk, pepijat atau serangga lain

Symptoms & Stages of HIV 
Gejala & Tahap HIV

Stage 1: Acute HIV infection
Tahap awal: Jangkitan HIV akut

Within 2-4 weeks after infection, some may not exhibit any symptoms, some may experience flu-like symptoms such as fever, rash, sore throat, swollen glands, headache, upset stomach, joint aches and pains and muscle pain.

During this stage, HIV multiplies rapidly, spreads throughout the body and attacks infection-fighting cells, also known as CD4 cells. However, if you experience any of the symptoms stated, it does not confirm HIV infection, be sure to get tested if you are in doubt. In Malaysia, HIV Screening test is free of charge for the public at government clinics and hospitals. Rapid at home tests can also be purchased over the counter or online at an affordable price.

Dalam jangka masa 2-4 minggu selepas dijangkiti, sesetengah individu mungkin tidak menunjukkan sebarang gejala manakala sesetengah individu mungkin mengalami gejala selesema seperti demam, ruam, sakit tekak, kelenjar bengkak, sakit kepala, perut, sendi dan otot.

Pada tahap ini, HIV membiak secara cepat, merebak kepada seluruh badan dan menyerang sel yang melindungi badan daripada jangkitan iaitu sel CD4. Walau bagaimanapun, sekiranya anda mengalami sebarang gejala yang dinyatakan tidak bermakna anda mendapati jangkitan HIV. Jalani ujian saringan sekiranya anda berasa mungkin dijangkiti HIV. Ujian saringan HIV adalah percuma kepada rakyat Malaysia di klinik kesihatan dan hospital umum. Kit ujian segera turut boleh diperolehi dari kedai farmasi atau secara atas talian dengan harga yang berpatutan.

Stage 2 : Chronic / Asymptomatic HIV infection
Tahap kedua : Jangkitan HIV kronik

In this stage, multiplication of HIV proceeds at a very low level, hence people with chronic HIV infection may not experience any symptoms

Pada tahap ini, pembiakan HIV diteruskan pada tahap yang rendah, maka pesakit mungkin tidak mengalami sebarang gejala.

Stage 3 : AIDS
Tahap akhir : AIDS

The final stage of HIV infection is known as AIDS, where CD4 cells count is less than 200 cells/ml or viral count more than 30 000 copies/ml. In other words, immune systems are severely damaged that they can no longer protect the body from infections.

Therefore, AIDS patients are at risk of opportunistic infections, which are infections that occur more frequently or more severe in people with weakened immune systems, for example, pneumocystis pneumonia (PCP). The symptoms include weight loss, chronic diarrhea, night sweats, fever, persistent cough, mouth and skin problems, regular infections and serious illness or diseases.

Tahap akhir jangkitan HIV, juga dikenali sebagai AIDS, di mana bacaan sel CD4 adalah kurang daripada 200 sel/ml atau bacaan virus adalah melebihi 30 000 copies/ml. Ini bermaksud sistem imun telah dirosakkan dan gagal melindungi tubuh badan daripada jangkitan.

Oleh sebab itu, pesakit mempunyai risiko yang tinggi bagi jangkitan oportunistik iaitu jangkitan yang sering berlaku pada individu yang mempunyai sistem pertahanan badan yang lemah, contohnya, pneumocystis pneumonia (PCP). Gejala AIDS termasuk penurunan berat badan cirit-birit kronik, berpeluh pada waktu malam, demam, batuk, masalah kulit dan mulut, jangkitan dan penyakit lain.

HIV in Malaysia
HIV di Malaysia

According to Global AIDS Monitoring 2020, it is estimated that around 87,000 people are living with HIV in Malaysia in 2019. Selangor (30.4%), Kuala Lumpur (12.6%) and Johor (9.5%) were the major contributors to new HIV cases, predominantly among males and people aged 20-39 years.

Among them, 89% of the people living with HIV know their HIV status, in which 56% of them were receiving antiretroviral therapy and 85% of them had their viral load under control. In the past decade, the proportion of sexual transmission overtook sharing of drug injection needles as the main mode of transmission among people diagnosed with HIV infection in Malaysia.

Menurut Laporan Global AIDS Monitoring 2020, individu yang hidup dengan HIV di Malaysia adalah dijangka seramai 87,000 pada tahun 2019. Selangor (30.4%), Kuala Lumpur (12.6%) and Johor (9.5%) menyumbang kepada majoriti kes baharu HIV, terutamanya dalam kalangan lelaki dan golongan berumur 20-39 tahun.

Sebanyak 89% individu yang hidup dengan HIV mengetahui status HIV mereka, sebanyak 56% menerima terapi antiretroviral (ART) dan sebanyak 85% mempunyai bacaan virus yang rendah.

HIV Statistics

How To Prevent HIV? 
Bagaimana Untuk Mencegah HIV?

Need PrEP or PEP education?

Contact us at [email protected] to find out more!
Hubungi kami melalui [email protected] bagi maklumat lanjut tentang PrEP atau PEP!

What to do if I test positive for HIV?
Apakah yang sepatutnya saya lakukan jika ujian HIV saya positif?

Step 1 : Seek medical help right away
Langkah 1 : Dapatkan rawatan dengan kadar segera
  • Locate a healthcare facility in your area and find the right doctor for you. HIV tests and treatment can be found in almost all Klinik Kesihatan and public hospitals in Malaysia.
    Cari lokasi pusat kesihatan yang terdekat dan doktor yang bersesuaian. Ujian saringan dan rawatan HIV boleh didapati di kebanyakan klinik kesihatan dan hospital kerajaan di Malaysia.
  • Feel free to contact us if you need us to refer you to the right medical resources.
    Hubungi kami sekiranya anda memerlukan rujukan kepada rawatan yang sesuai.
Step 2 : Obtain information about HIV from reliable sources
Langkah 2 : Memperolehi maklumat tentang HIV daripada sumber yang boleh dipercayai.
  • Counseling process with a doctor at the Infectious Disease Division at government hospitals.
    Proses kaunseling dengan doktor di bahagian kawalan penyakit berjangkit di hospital kerajaan.
  • Contact Malaysian AIDS Council.
    Hubungi Malaysian AIDS Council.
Step 3 : Get emotional support to cope with your diagnosis
Langkah 3 : Dapatkan sokongan emosi
  • Seek local HIV-positive support groups.
    Cari kumpulan sokongan HIV tempatan.

    eg. TemanTeman.org Malaysia, PT Foundation, Kuala Lumpur AIDS Support Services Society (KLASS)
  • Ask your doctor for referral to a mental health professional if needed.
    Minta rujukan pesakit daripada doktor anda kepada pakar psikologi jika diperlukan.
  • Talk to friends and family.
    Dapatkan sokongan dari rakan dan ahli keluarga.
Step 4 : Adhere to HIV treatment and monitor your health from time to time
Langkah 4 : Patuhi kepada rawatan HIV dan pantau kesihatan anda dari semasa ke semasa
  • Seek local HIV-positive support groups.
    Cari kumpulan sokongan HIV tempatan.

    eg. TemanTeman.org Malaysia, PT Foundation, Kuala Lumpur AIDS Support Services Society (KLASS)
  • Take your medications as prescribed on time.
    Ambil ubat tepat pada masa.
  • Get tested to track your HIV viral load and CD4 count.
    Jalani ujian untuk memantau bacaan virus dan sel CD4 anda.
Step 5 : Stay optimistic
Langkah 5 : Berfikiran optimistik

    Bear in mind that you still can live a normal life by undergoing antiretroviral therapy and taking good care of your overall health.

    Bear in mind that you still can live a normal life by undergoing antiretroviral therapy and taking good care of your overall health.

HIV Treatment and Cure 
Rawatan dan Penawar HIV

There is no cure
for HIV infection.

Setakat ini, tiada penawar
bagi jangkitan HIV.

People with AIDS typically survive about 3 years without treatment. Antiretroviral therapy (ART) is used to slow or prevent HIV infection advances to the next stage by reducing the amount of HIV in the blood to a level that is too low to be detected by a viral load test (undetectable viral load).

ART should be initiated for HIV positive individuals at any CD4 cell count. HIV infected individuals with undetectable viral load lower the risk of transmitting HIV to HIV negative individuals.

Individu yang hidup dengan HIV boleh hidup untuk 3 tahun tanpa rawatan. Terapi antiretroviral (ART) digunakan untuk melambatkan atau mencegah jangkitan HIV daripada menjadi semakin teruk dengan mengurangkan jumlah HIV dalam darah sehingga suatu tahap yang rendah dan tidak boleh dikesan oleh ujian saringan virus HIV.

ART sepatutnya dimulakan seawal yang mungkin, tanpa mengira keadaan bacaan sel CD4. Individu yang dijangkiti HIV yang mempunyai bacaan virus HIV yang tidak boleh dikesan adalah kurang berkemungkinan untuk menyebarkan jangkitan tersebut kepada individu sihat.

HIV Vaccine Research Paper

To date, ART is the only treatment for HIV infection, scientists have been working towards developing a cure to end HIV and AIDS for more than 30 years. In 2019, the first in-human clinical trial testing the new HIV vaccine approach has shown promising results. The vaccine had successfully stimulated the immune system in 97% participants to create antibodies that can neutralise diverse strains of HIV, known as broadly neutralising antibodies (bnAbs) and no safety concerns arose among participants.

Setakat ini, ART merupakan satu-satunya rawatan yang ada untuk jangkitan HIV, pakar sains telah berusaha untuk membangunkan penawar HIV dan AIDS sepanjang lebih daripada 30 tahun. Pada tahun 2019, percubaan klinikal vaksin HIV yang dilakukan ke atas manusia telah memaparkan hasil kajian yang bagus. Vaksin tersebut telah berjaya merangsang sistem imun dalam sebanyak 97% subjek untuk menghasilkan antibodi yang dikenali sebagai broadly neutralising antibodies (bnAbs) yang boleh meneutralkan strain HIV yang berbeza dan subjek tidak mengalami sebarang masalah kesihatan akibat suntikan vaksin tersebut.

Free Resources

HIV TransmissionHIV PreventionHIV StatisticsResponding to Positive ResultHIV Symptoms and Signs

Reference

  1. First-in-human clinical trial confirms new HIV vaccine approach. Scripps Research Institute. (2021). Retrieved April 01, 2021, from http://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2021/02/210203162249.htm
  2. HIV/AIDS. Mayoclinic.org. (2020). Retrieved April 01, 2021, from https://www.mayoclinic.org/diseases-conditions/hiv-aids/symptoms-causes/syc-20373524
  3. HIV/AIDS: The basics. Malaysian AIDS Council. (n.d.). Retrieved April 01, 2021, from https://www.mac.org.my/v3/i-want-to-learn-more-about-hivaids/
  4. HIV and AIDS. NHS UK. (2020). Retrieved April 01, 2021, from https://www.nhs.uk/conditions/hiv-and-aids/
  5. HIV treatment. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2020). Retrieved April 01, 2021, from https://www.cdc.gov/hiv/basics/livingwithhiv/treatment.html
  6. Ministry of Health Malaysia. (2019). Global AIDS Monitoring 2020. https://www.moh.gov.my/moh/resources/Penerbitan/Laporan/Umum/Laporan_Global_AIDS_Monitoring_2020_new.pdf
  7. Symptoms and stages of HIV infection. Avert.org. (2020). Retrieved April 01, 2021, from https://www.avert.org/about-hiv-aids/symptoms-stages
  8. What are HIV and AIDS? HIV.gov. (2021). Retrieved April 01, 2021, from https://www.hiv.gov/hiv-basics/overview/about-hiv-and-aids/what-are-hiv-and-aids